Overview - Volume 1

Executive Summary:

Volume 1: Multilateral Services

This Guide now covers 31 multilateral and regional agencies, with additional material on six cross-agency programmes.  The first edition in 2008 covered 21 international agencies.  The 2010 edition added four more specialised agencies and five regional development banks.  This edition has added UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law).  They can be classified into three types: those for which trade-related capacity building in developing countries is the core of their work, in particular the ITC (International Trade Centre) and UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development):  these are involved in a wide range of activities; those concentrating on trade or some aspect of it which see assistance to developing countries as an essential part of promoting their responsibilities - these include the WTO (World Trade Organization), UNWTO (World Tourism Organization), IMF (International Monetary Fund), UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), IMO (International Maritime Organization), UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), WHO (World Health Organization) and ITU (International Telecommunications Union), as well as UNCITRAL:  they tend to have a narrower agenda; and finally development agencies, both general and specialist, which recognise that improving countries’ capacity to trade must be part of any development strategy, such as UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), the United Nations Economic Commissions and Regional Development Banks, the World Bank, IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), UN-HABITAT (United Nations Human Settlements Programme) and UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East).  For some, aid or trade or both are essential responsibilities; for others, their specialisms give them an important role in building trade-related capacity.  Some of the agencies have their own views on appropriate trade and legal policies, and their aid is intended to help countries adopt these.  Others do not promote specific objectives, although it is inevitable that they make some assumptions about what policies are feasible or effective.

There have been no major changes in their coverage of different activities or eligibility rules since the previous editions.  There are several agencies which have added or removed one activity from those reported in the 2010 edition, but only one with more than one change, the UNECA (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa) which has added Supply Capacity and removed Global Advocacy, Legal and Regulatory Framework, Trade Promotion and Market and Trade information.  Two more agencies now include Supply capacity; one more offers Trade Policy; and the addition of UNCITRAL adds one agency to the Legal and Regulatory Framework list, partially offsetting the withdrawal from this of UNECA and WHO.  The only other activity losing two donor agencies is Market and Trade Information (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), as well as UNECA), with Global Advocacy (UNECA) and Compliance Support Infrastructure (World Bank) losing one each.  There are no changes in those offering Physical Infrastructure or Trade Facilitation.

 As noted in the general Introduction to the two Volumes (Volume 1, Multilateral Services and Volume 2, Bilateral Services), more than two thirds offer assistance in the areas related to policy:  Global Advocacy and Trade Policy Development, with almost as many offering support for Legal and Regulatory Frameworks.  Building Supply Capacity also attracts support from more than two thirds (Table M1).  In contrast, fewer than a third are engaged in the areas of Trade Promotion, Financial Services, Physical Infrastructure and Compliance Support. (The last is closely related to Legal and Regulatory Framework support so this low number may be partly a classification result.)  Market and Trade Information and Trade Facilitation are only slightly more common. 

The ways in which the multilateral and regional agencies support trade

The key areas for trade capacity building identified in the Trade Capacity Building Resource Guides are:

  • Global advocacy for trade as a tool for development;
  • Trade policy development, including competition policies;
  • Design and implementation of legal and regulatory frameworks that allow for the implementation of WTO and other international agreements, or facilitate accession to them;
  • Supply capacity development, including the improvement of the business environment and the investment climate, the provision of business services and access to financing, and private sector development in general;
  • Compliance infrastructure and services, in particular for standards, accreditation and certification bodies, testing and calibration laboratories, and inspection services;
  • Trade promotion by the development of export promotion strategies and the strengthening of trade promotion institutions;
  • Market and trade information structures and services;
  • Trade facilitation to assist import and export mechanisms and processes by the streamlining of customs procedures and border and transport management;
  • Physical trade infrastructure, such as ports, rail transport, roads, cool chains, and harbours;
  • Trade and export financing, international payments and other trade-related financing.
  •  South-South and triangular cooperation initiatives
  • Other trade-related activities: some agencies also reported “other” activities, including some related to climate change or other environmental impact.

Table M1 summarises the areas of trade intervention for each of the agencies, and also indicates which explicitly mention encouraging South-South partnership..  Many of the activities reported could be classified under more than one heading:  some are discussed under more than one, but for the details it is necessary to look at the section on Programmes and Initiatives of Volume 1, Multilateral Services.

Table 1

Overview of UN Agencies and Regional Development Banks' Trade Capacity Building Services

 
 

Global
Advocacy

Trade Policy
Development

Legal and
Regulatory
Framework

Supply
Capacity

Compliance
Infrastructure
and Services

Trade
Promotion

Market
& Trade
Information

Trade
Facilitation

Physical Trade
Infrastructure

Trade-related
Financial
Services

South-South
& Triangular
Cooperation

Other
Trade-related
Activities

Total

 

regional agencies

22

21

18

21

8

4

10

12

8

7

17

8

31

DAC donors

13

21

18

24

21

15

17

19

20

22

10

7

24

Other EU donors

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

4

Other G20 donors

0

4

3

2

3

0

1

4

2

0

5

0

6

Global Advocacy

The global advocacy category covers services that are designed to promote the use of trade as a development tool and to encourage support for developing countries’ efforts to improve their trade capacity building. This includes analysis and dissemination of trade-related information, promoting understanding of the relationship between trade and development, and supporting policies. Some agencies provide information on and support for the interactions between their more specialized interests and trade.

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) publishes reports on the World Economic and Social Survey, and also offers direct assistance to countries on global advocacy.  UNIDO publishes the Industrial Development Report.  The WTO publishes research on trade and trade policy, including the annual World Trade Report and research reports.  It also provides information and opportunities for discussion to parliamentarians, researchers, and NGOs.  UNCTAD has a range of specialist publications, most on an annual basis, which provide background information and analysis on trade.  These include the Trade and Development Report, the World Investment Report, the Economic Development in Africa Report, the Least Developed Countries Report, The Information Economy Report, the Technology and Innovation Report, The Trade and Environment Review and The Creative Economy Report.  It also prepares Investment Policy Reviews of individual countries, Information and Communications Technology reviews, and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Reviews.  It has a long history of analysis and advocacy on commodity trade.    The World Bank tries to change world trade policies through analysis and reports, and has focused particularly on WTO negotiations and, more recently, on regional negotiations. 

UNDP publishes research on trade and human development, and supports LDCs and land-locked developing countries, with a particular focus on managing commodities.  UNEP provides research and advice on environment-related trade opportunities. The ITC (International Trade Centre) tries to develop in-country interest in trade issues, citing especially non-tariff barriers and gender and environmental issues, through national discussions and assistance in integrating such issues into trade policy.  It also encourages developing sectoral export strategies.   The UNWTO has in-country and global initiatives to increase awareness of the importance of tourism and to encourage reducing barriers.  The FAO, AfDB (African Development Bank) and CDB (Caribbean Development Bank) prepare strategy papers.  The FAO, IFAD, ITU, UNESCAP, ADB (Asian Development Bank), AfDB, CDB (Caribbean Development Bank), EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) and IDB (Inter-American Development Bank) organise workshops.  The ILO (International Labour Organisation) has a continuing programme to analyse the social impacts of trade policy. 

The IMF promotes liberalising trade, and prepares the biannual World Economic Outlook which includes projections of the impact of different trade policies.  UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) provides research and information on the needs of the transition economies.  The WHO is interested in improving policy coherence between health and trade policies. 
Trade Policy Development

Agencies’ assistance to trade policy development is generally provided in four areas: design and implementation of trade policy; specific developing country issues in trade (such as commodity exports and preferences); support in trade negotiations; and assistance in managing the interactions between trade and other policies.

The WTO has a longstanding programme to train trade policy officials from developing countries, and also has specialist courses on particular topics, including new regulations and negotiating skills, and supports academic research.  It has a programme to help countries assess their trade capacity building needs.  UNDP assess trade policy training needs and supports officials in integrating trade and human development into development policy.    It has programmes for Asia-Pacific and Africa.  UNCTAD provides analysis and policy advice on commodities as well as training for trade officials.  It provides advice on integrating environmental policies into trade policy.  It provides policy advice and training for trade negotiations, including trade in services, investment agreements and preferential trade.  It offers training courses for trade and other officials, negotiators, and for researchers.  UNIDO builds capacity to formulate and implement trade policy, especially on improving the quality of exports, and prepares studies of the policies needed to promote value chains in individual sectors and on industrial governance.  UNDESA has trained LDC and Central American trade officials. The ITC trains public sector officials and also supports the private sector to take an active role in developing trade policy.  NTMs are a particular focus.  The FAO offers training in trade policy and access to data and other information.  IFAD provides background studies of how trade policy can reduce poverty. 

UNEP provides advice on voluntary sustainability standards.  The UNWTO has programmes to strengthen capacity in tourism administrations.  The WHO helps countries understand the implications of trade agreements for health objectives.  The ILO provides training in analysing the social impact of trade.  The ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) is more directive, offering a framework for trade policy in aviation, and the IMF also encourages trade liberalisation in its advice programmes.  The World Bank provides research and analysis to help countries’ trade policy formulation.  It has developed a tool kit to improve trade governance and streamline non-tariff measures.  Its analysis includes support for understanding and responding to specific trade shocks,  trade diagnostic studies of countries’ need for trade support, and sectoral studies, for example on food and services in Africa and as background for regional integration in south Asia. 

The regional commissions and banks tend to have a strong commitment to regional integration.  Recently the World Bank has also taken this position.  UNESCAP has a data base on trade and investment agreements and sponsors a network of researchers on trade in Asia.  It provides capacity building on trade policy as well as supply research to policy makers.   UNECA has a programme of assisting regional integration through research, information, and discussion.  It has a trade policy research centre.  UNECLAC (United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean) provides research and information on trade policy, and supports policy makers through publications, including Latin America in the World Economy, and workshops.  These include analysis of trade within the region and with other regions, notably with Asia. 

The AfDB’s main focus is regional integration, preparing studies and offering funding and training for this.  The ADB provides workshops, and research, and also offers training and provides manuals on trade policy.  The IDB provides studies of the implications of existing and proposed agreements, transport and other costs, and the role of export promotion agencies; it has recently focused on the impact of Asia on Latin American trade policy.  It has a long history of supporting its members in negotiating regional agreements and providing training for trade officials.

Legal and Regulatory Framework

Assistance under this category includes helping countries to bring their own regulations into conformity with international rules, more general help to improve their legal institutions, and training officials to deal with such rules. A number of the agencies specialise in particular areas, rather than trying to provide expertise on the legal rules in all sectors. For several, the aim is to balance trade-related obligations with other national (or international) interests.

UNCTAD and the World Bank advise countries on WTO accession and on implementing other international agreements, including on intellectual property and preferences.  They also provide support on national legislation; for UNCTAD  this now includes competition and consumer law, while the World Bank advises on trade regulations and supports countries to meet international standards, including those for agricultural goods.  The WTO advises countries on meeting their legal commitments in the WTO, both directly and through setting up reference centres.  The ITC helps countries develop legal frameworks for supporting trade and also assists in harmonising regional frameworks. 

UNDP has provided advice on implementing the WTO’s intellectual property agreement and on trade and biodiversity.  WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) advises countries on how to draft or revise legislation to implement international rules on intellectual property.  UNIDO helps countries implement WTO agreements on Technical barriers to Trade (TBTs) and Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS).  The FAO provides support for countries to meet international agreements and also in negotiations. 

The ICAO has its own objectives for the international regulatory framework, and promotes these as well as helping countries respond to international regulations.  The ILO has developed labour standards over almost a century, and provides advice to countries on their own labour legislation and training on this.  The IMO has developed standards for safety and avoiding pollution, and helps countries to implement these.  UNEP provides advice to enable countries to meet eco-labelling standards.  The ITU, which regulates the use of the radio frequency spectrum, offers a ‘tool kit’ to help countries develop appropriate regulatory frameworks as well as organising international meetings for regulators.  It provides annual data on policies.  UNCITRAL offers assistance in acceding to its conventions. 

UNESCAP advises on the WTO negotiations.  UNECE encourages harmonisation and standardisation of regulations.  It also supports ‘market surveillance’ to protect the safety of workers and products and ensure quality.  It uses exchange of information among members to improve knowledge sharing.  UNECLAC maintains a database of trade disputes relevant to Latin American and Caribbean countries, with analyses.

The AfDB has introduced The African Legal Support Facility to assist countries in both public trade negotiations and commercial transactions with foreign companies.
Supply Capacity

In line with the trade focus of this Guide, support activities to develop supply capacity are considered to be those that aim to increase the availability of goods and services for export. There is no easy distinction between this and building more general capacity to produce, and this distinction is becoming less pertinent as borders open and competition in local markets from imports increases. Some agencies do not make this distinction in their projects.

UNDP supports the development of regional value chains, especially in Africa and Central Asia.  It has a programme encouraging the production and marketing of sustainable commodities.  It is introducing a comprehensive programme for Arab states on trade reform, productivity, employment and investment. UNCTAD’s trade support encourages moving up value chains.   It has an extensive programme on analysing the supply and role of foreign investment and also advises on foreign investment agencies.  Its sectoral programmes include tourism, and it supports SMEs, partly by linking them to larger companies.  It helps countries to use information and communications technologies more effectively.  The ITC supports SMEs through training, marketing, information, and advice.  One training programme is on supply chain management.  UNESCAP helps to identify opportunities for SMEs to participate in regional and global value chains.  It has programmes encouraging sustainable production, foreign investment, and technology transfer.  The IDB provides general support for the private sector, with a focus on developing international value chains.  The ILO provides advice on increasing employment creation and on developing skills for projected new employment, using a value chain approach.  It tries to increase productivity through helping good labour and environmental practices.  

The UNWTO helps countries to identify potential for tourism activities.  UNEP helps countries find opportunities in bio-trade and organic agriculture.  UN-HABITAT had helped develop production through rural-urban linkages.  UNRWA provides skills training.  UNIDO provides research on the opportunities for individual sectors and products, with an emphasis on the quality standards needed.  It assists agricultural chains through improving food hygiene management and reducing waste in processing.  It is also helping countries to improve standards in some industries and encouraging the adoption of innovative technologies which save or recycle energy or use cleaner energy and other initiatives to help countries find opportunities in green industries.  It helps SMEs by encouraging joint export initiatives and linkages with larger firms.  It helps build national institutions which will encourage upgrading and productivity improvements.  UNECA helps countries to take advantage of the US Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).  UNECLAC analyses the prospects for exports of different sectors.  The World Bank provides assistance to agribusinesses and also supports South-South investment.    

As well as offering general support for countries trying to encourage their private sectors, the AfDB has programmes in agricultural and rural development, including a fertiliser production project.  The EBRD also focuses on agribusiness, and understandably the FAO sees its main aim as being increasing agricultural productivity.  The IAEA also focuses on agriculture, trying to improve production methods to provide higher quality. 

The CDB has traditionally supported export agriculture and light manufacturing, but is now shifting to support for tourism.  Its activities have a broad coverage including agriculture, fishing, forestry, manufacturing, distribution, mining, tourism, and transport.  The ITU provides assistance in developing telecom technologies.  The ADB focus is on assisting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and the EBRD also has programmes for these. 

Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services

Assistance in this category is closely related to that under the Legal and Regulatory Framework, but places more emphasis on building the institutions in developing countries to implement such legal frameworks, and less on the details of compliance. It is an area where the specialised agencies again have the main role. 

UNIDO advises countries on the advantages of developing compliance institutions, and assesses their needs.  It supports the development of standardisation, testing, and accreditation bodies, including those regulating food safety standards and energy efficiency.  The ITC provides advice to help countries develop certification and inspection bodies as well as direct support on improving quality.  The FAO hosts the international standard setting agencies for SPS and plant protection, and can provide support to build institutions to help countries meet SPS requirements.  The IAEA develops countries’ expertise in meeting international food safety standards.  The ITU encourages international standards, and is providing support for developing country participation in standard setting as well as training in compliance.  The UNWTO has developed a certification system for tourism training.  The UNECE helps countries to agree and apply common standards on agricultural goods.  UNECLAC offers ad hoc support on compliance.

Trade Promotion Capacity Building

This category includes both direct support to exporters and the building of institutions in-country which will provide such support. It is different from many of the other categories in its direct relationship to the private sector.

This is an important part of the ITC’s activities:  it provides training and a set of packages to help countries develop their trade support institutions.  It also encourages benchmarking against other countries’ institutions.  The UNWTO provides advice and technical support for tourism marketing.  The IDB and  UNECLAC offer advice on policies and mechanisms for countries trying to promote trade. 

Market and Trade Information

Market information and trade information services are different in their focus and methods. Market information is about sub-sectors and products, while trade information focuses on the aggregate level, including data on trade flows, policies affecting trade, and trends in these. Market information is usually targeted at traders. Trade information is, broadly speaking, intended to be used by policy-makers.

The ITC provides market information on a range of commodities and services, and also helps countries develop their own market information services.  UNIDO helps countries to develop business information centres.

Trade information is more often supported than market information by the multilateral agencies.  The World Bank has supported a partnership with UNCTAD, ITC, and the AfDB to compile data on trade flows, and make them easily available, integrating various international databases.  These incorporate information on trade policy, including tariffs, measures of trade restrictiveness and NTMs on goods and services, and logistics costs.  Its models allow countries to simulate the effects of policy changes.  UNCTAD is a major provider of trade data and information on trade policies, with a comprehensive database on tariffs and non-tariff measures.  The UNWTO has important databases on tourism flows and has developed analytic tools for estimating the effects of tourism on economies.  The WTO compiles some trade data and supports the Global Trade-related Technical Assistance Database (GTAD):  described in the section on Interagency Cooperation Mechanisms of Volume 1, Multilateral Service.(

The FAO improves countries’ access to relevant trade databases and helps them to develop their own market and commodity information. UNIDO makes similar efforts on industrial trade and productivity statistics at global, regional, and country level.  The AfDB complies data for its region and also assists statistical offices in member countries.  The ADB and IDB maintain data bases on regional agreements and trade indicators more generally.  UNECLAC has a trade database.
Trade Facilitation

This category covers the development, harmonization, and implementation of the rules and procedures which govern how goods cross borders.

The WTO, IMF, World Bank, and IMO help countries to assess their trade facilitation needs.  These efforts are intended, in part, as an input to the WTO trade facilitation negotiations.  The World Bank advises on streamlining regulations and procedures and also on reducing costs of transport. It has focused particularly on the needs of landlocked countries, including work on trade corridors.  UNCTAD, as well as offering support for negotiations on trade facilitation, advises  on policy and legislation.  It provides capacity building on all types of transport services, including shipping and port management.  It has developed an automated system for customs data and clearance.  The ITC offers support to private sector providers of logistics and other services relevant to trade facilitation as well as helping companies to meet legal requirements.  The IMF offers training and advice on improving customs administration.

The Regional Commissions have a joint project to improve countries’ access to global value chains by reducing obstacles to trading.  UNESCAP has implemented this through workshops and exchange of information.  It encourages simplification and standardisation of border procedures, providing information and advice as well as research on the significance of trade facilitation.  It also has a programme for trade in food products.  UNECE also encouraged simplification and standardisation and helps to develop agreed procedures.  UNECLAC has concentrated on improving customs procedures. The AfDB works to reduce border costs through addressing legal and regulatory constraints, improving border and transport infrastructure, and encouraging related services such as financial and distribution services.  The ADB also focuses on regions, in particular concentrating on strengthening integration in four sub-regions Central, East and South Asia, and the Greater Mekong.  The IDB has activities to improve the logistics and physical infrastructure of trading, including transport, assisting both the public and the private sectors.
Physical Trade Infrastructure

Like Supply Capacity, this is a category where the boundary between trade support and more general support to production or development is not clearly defined. Some agencies, including the World Bank, try to allocate spending on individual projects partially to trade and partially to other purposes; others focus on the principal purpose of a project or a type of activity.

The World Bank has concentrated on transport infrastructure.  UNCTAD offers advice on improving the productivity of transport services, with a particular focus on multi-modal transport.  The ICAO provides advice, forecasts, and some financial support for air transport infrastructure.  The IMO has developed standards and ‘recommended practices’ to expedite maritime transport, and provides assistance on implementing these. 

UNECE develops standards, for example for transport of dangerous goods and road vehicles, and has helped establish a regional programme for roads.  The AfDB’s priorities are improving regional transport corridors, rural roads, and maintenance of transport, and encouraging private provision of ICT services.  The CDB supports airports, sea ports, and roads, especially those needed for tourism and commodity exports. The EBRD and IDB support roads and sea transport.
Trade-Related Financial Services

Trade finance is one of the areas where exporters from developing countries are most disadvantaged compared to those from developed countries because selling at a distance to purchasers who are not directly known within the country requires special skills and risk assessment from banks. Only when exports reach a sufficiently high level is it profitable for banks in a country to acquire these skills, so exporters, particularly SMEs, are hampered by difficulty in accessing export finance. Therefore both the cost and the availability of appropriate finance are problems. Some agencies offer support to build national capacity, while others try to fill the gap until such capacity is available.

UNCTAD provides technical assistance on insurance, commodity risk management, and other financial tools.  The ITC offers training to institutions in providing trade finance and to companies in how to access it.  When trade finance became less available during the financial crisis, the World Bank developed new instruments to help SME traders, particularly in agriculture.

The AfDB offers both general support to trade finance and special assistance when normal sources dry up.  The ADB supports both lending and equity finance.  The IDB facilitates loan finance, especially for SMEs.  The EBRD provides loan guarantees for trade finance and factoring, and also offers training in trade finance.  It has a variety of other financing programmes for traders.

South-South and Triangular Cooperation

The ITC has encouraged regional cooperation on a sectoral basis, for example in its cotton initiative for Africa, while UNDP (UN Development Programme) has encouraged cross-border cooperation among SMEs.  The WTO encourages it in its regional programmes. UNDP   has an agreement with China to encourage South-South cooperation.   UNCTAD has a unit to analyse such cooperation and has encouraged regional cooperation.  The World Bank promotes the exchange of experience, giving examples in garments and irrigation. 

Among the specialised agencies, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) has a longstanding programme to facilitate experts from relatively advanced developing countries to assist other countries, especially in Africa.  It also has  agreements with Argentina, Indonesia and China to fund assistance among developing countries and specific sectoral agreements, for example with Brazil for assistance on environmental issue in Latin American countries.  IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) also considers funding and helping exchange of knowledge an important part of its programme.   UNEP has promoted sectoral assistance in fish, cotton and tourism. UNIDO promotes exchange of experience in industrial sectors and fishing and also in the area of business organisations.  It has worked with China on advice on inspection centres.   The ILO has worked with Brazil on projects in Lusophone Africa and has signed an agreement with Brazil, India and South Africa to promote decent work.  The WHO assists trilateral cooperation on intellectual property rights in pharmaceuticals, and WIPO also encourages exchange of experience on the institutional aspects of protecting intellectual property. 

The UN Regional Commissions and the regional development banks have a long history of facilitating South-South cooperation, and some are extending this beyond their own regions.  The IDB has worked with China (and also with Korea (Republic of)) and also collaborates with the ADB to share good development practices.  The ADB  has regional programmes to encourage cooperation in South Asia and in the Mekong region.   It provides technical assistance to China in its cooperation with other countries in the region.  The AfDB has an agreement with Brazil to fund cooperation in countries in Africa.  UNESCAP has sectoral programmes in cotton and textiles and in services.  UNECLAC has done comparative analysis as an input into South-South assistance. 

Other Trade-Related Activities

Other types of assistance, although some of them may not be specifically targeted at trade, may be intended to affect trade.

One of the original objectives of the WTO’s Aid for Trade initiative was to help countries to adjust to changes in trade policy by other countries.  The IMF developed the Trade Integration Mechanism (TIM) to assist countries to respond to multilateral trade liberalisation.  (Because of the lack of progress on WTO negotiations, only three countries have used this:  Bangladesh, Dominican Republic and Madagascar.)  There appear to be no similar mechanisms to help countries affected by regional integration which excludes them, although, unlike multilateral liberalisation, such agreements are being implemented. 

UNCTAD offers advice on the trade and investment impact of climate change regimes, with the aim of helping developing countries use the opportunities created, for example in CDM and carbon markets.  The ICAO has developed standards for measuring and controlling the environmental impacts of air travel, and the ITU is developing or encouraging new, less energy-intensive technologies.  The EBRD has helped develop a market for carbon credits, and also mentions supports for institutional reform. 

The AfDB includes its general support to improving business development in this category.  The ILO mentions a project to encourage a local economy based on traditional products.  UNRWA also promotes community development, while the World Bank includes here support to countries for intra-African trade to improve food security.